Southern Pea

SOUTHERN PEA (COWPEA)

By Frank J. Dainello and Marty Baker
Extension Horticulturists

Adapted for High Plains Growers
by Roland E. Roberts
Extension Horticulturist

VARIETIES:

 

 Blackeye: Arkansas #1 ( short, determinate bush, 60-70 days)
Blackeye #5 (vining, 90-95 days)
Blackeye #46 (vining, 90-95 days)
 Cream: Texas Cream 40 (tall, determinate bush, 80 days)
 Crowder: Brown Sugar Crowder (vining, 90 days)
Mississippi Silver (tall bushy vine, 85-90 days)
Zipper Cream (low vine, 90 days)
 Pinkeye: Texas Pinkeye (tall, determinate bush, 75-85 days)
Early Scarlet (determinate bush, 75-85 days)
Pinkeye Purple Hull BVR (vining, 90-95 days)

 
SOIL PREFERENCE: Fine sandy loam to light sandy clays, with pH 6.0-7.5; highly calcareous soils can cause chlorosis which can result in yield reduction; Texas Pinkeye tolerates high soil pH relatively well.

OPTIMUM GROWING CONDITIONS: Warm to hot days(85 – 95 F) and warm nights (60 – 65 F) with mean temperature 70 – 80 F.

ESTABLISHMENT METHODS: Direct seeded

 

 Optimum time =  Soil temperature > 65 F and frost danger over
 Seeding rate lbs/A =  12 – 40
 Seed / oz. =  200 – 250
 Seeding depth =  0.75 – 1.0″.
 Seedling spacing =  2 – 6″ on 36 – 42″ beds, depending on variety grown.

FERTILITY/FERTILIZATION: Rates presented as actual lbs/ac N, P205, and K20 (base actual rates on soil test results)

 

 Generalized rate lbs/ac 35 – 60 – 70
 N 20 – 60, preplant applied; none if soil test shows 10-20 ppm and inoculant is used.
 P 60 – 80, banded approximately 3″ below seed at planting; band only P below seed.
 K 40 – 100, preplant applied with the nitrogen. None required on High Plains except in Tivoli Sand.
 Lime 0.5 – 1.0 ton/ac fall applied (East Texas and other areas with pH < 6.0 only).

WATER/IRRIGATION: 10 – 20″, critical demand period is bloom; maintain uniform moisture throughout fruit set and pod development. Do not water log soils.

PEST MANAGEMENT:

 

 MAJOR DISEASES CONTROL*
Viruses Resistant varieties, sanitation
Powdery mildew/Rust Sulfur
Fusarium wilt Resistance
Nematodes Telone, Telone C17, Vorlex

 

 MAJOR INSECTS CONTROL*
 Cowpea curculio Methoxychlor, weevil-free seed
 Wireworm Diazinon
 Cutworm Diazinon, Sevin, Methoxychlor
 Stink bug Sevin, Lannate
 Aphid Di-syston, Dimethoate, Diazinon, Malathion

 

 WEEDS CONTROL*
 Pre emergence Dacthal, Pursuit; read label rotation restrictions.
 Preplant incorporated Treflan, Prowl 3.3 EC, Dual, Pursuit; see rates on label and read rotation restrictions before using.
 Postemergence Poast, Pursuit; read label rotation restrictions.
 * NOTE – The above is a partial listing of controls intended as examples. Some labels may have been revoked since the publication of this guide. Refer to product labels for specifics and use accordingly. Failure to do so may result in crop injury, death and/or citation for law violation. Humans, animals and the environment may also be adversely affected by misuse.

HARVEST:

 

 Days after planting 65 – 80
 Normal method Hand: dry seed and some varieties can be mechanically harvested.
 Containers Field baskets/bulk wagons.
 Grades Free from defects, blemishes and insect stings.
 Packaging/Handling 24 lb bushel baskets, 40 lb crates, cardboard boxes containing 12 11-oz cello bags.
 Anticipated yield lbs/A  Dry, 600 – 800; green, 900 – 2000 (15 – 24 bu).

TRANSIT CONDITIONS: 32 F @ 95 – 98% RH; shelf-life 1 – 2 weeks.

COMMENTS/PRODUCTION KEYS:

  • Can be harvested as green snaps, green mature and dry.
  • Ship fresh peas under refrigerated conditions.
  • Most fields are multiple harvested.
  • Three year crop rotation is suggested to reduce potential disease and insect problems.
  • Wet cold condition at or following planting induce seed rot and seedling damping off.
  • Frost causes pod injury.
  • Can be grown as a dry land crop but responds extremely well to irrigation in the form of increased yield and quality.
  • Best to use a seed inoculant (nitrogen-fixing bacteria), especially on new pea land, crop does not respond well to high nitrogen fertilization (increased vine growth and reduced pea
    yield can result).
  • Winter rye cover crop prior to planting spring peas aids in reducing nematode problems.

 

The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended, and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied. Educational programs conducted by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service serve people of all ages, regardless of socioeconomic level, race, color, sex, religion, disability or national origin.
The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts Cooperating.

southernpea grower guide 2-8-2000

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